Что такое Биткоин cold storage

«Дурак, и его деньги скоро расстаются» Томас Туссер

С биткойнами, ведущими в 2009 году, мир криптовалют за последние несколько лет стал все больше и сильнее. Растет использование и принятие виртуальных валют, большее продвижение в программном обеспечении и системах, а также растущее число участников. Но, еще одна вещь, которая растет с популярностью виртуальных денег, — это количество случаев взлома и мошеннических действий. Поскольку нормативная база виртуальных валют еще недостаточно развита, у владельцев нет ресурса в случае мошенничества или кражи. (См. Чтение, см .: Биткойн: текущая и будущая законодательная база)

Итак, где вы храните свои биткойны (и альткоины)? Технически нигде, поскольку это не биткойны, которые хранятся. Доступ к биткойнам осуществляется с помощью ключей (адресов и кодов), которые хранятся в кошелек Биткойн (также известный как цифровой кошелек). Таким образом, это цифровой кошелек, в котором хранятся общедоступные и закрытые ключи, которые необходимо защитить, храня их в надежном месте. (См. Также, см.: Способы заработать биткойны)

Существуют различные способы защиты Биткойн-кошелька, популярными из которых являются шифрование, резервное копирование, многосегментное и холодное хранение; Тем не менее, никто не является непогрешимым. Первый способ шифрования вашего кошелька — использование надежного пароля. Второй способ — сделать резервную копию кошелька. Даже неисправность компьютера может привести к потере биткойнов, не говоря уже о взломе. Multisig — еще один способ защиты биткойнов. Это связано с созданием системы транзакций с несколькими подписями, в соответствии с которой больше людей (обычно 2 или 3) должны утверждать выделяемые средства.

Холодное хранение — еще один способ защитить биткойны. Это включает в себя сохранение биткойнов в автономном режиме — это означает, что от любого доступа в Интернет. Сохранение биткойнов в автономном режиме существенно снижает угрозу со стороны хакеров. Метод холодного хранения менее удобен, чем шифрование или резервное копирование; таким образом, это обычно делается путем сохранения некоторых денег в системе для регулярных расходов и помещения остальных в устройство для хранения холода. Это уменьшает усилия по выкапыванию монет из холодного хранилища время от времени для повседневного использования.

Практика разделения резервов обычно сопровождается обменом, который облегчает покупку и продажу криптотермин. Эти платформы занимаются огромным количеством биткойнов (и, как и валюты), и являются целями для хакеров. Чтобы минимизировать потерю в случаях нарушения безопасности, такие платформы предпочитают сохранять мажоритарную долю в холодном хранении. Эти обмены знают тенденции вывода и, таким образом, сохраняют только эту сумму на сервере для удовлетворения требований. (См. Раздел «Взгляд на самые популярные биткойн-биржи»)

Обычно используемые методы холодного хранения:

  • Бумажный кошелек — это способ защитить от хакеров или сбоев компьютера и включает печать открытых и закрытых ключей на бумаге.Кроме того, бумажный кошелек обычно имеет QR-код, который можно отсканировать и добавить в кошелек программного обеспечения для совершения быстрых транзакций. Поскольку в документе содержится вся необходимая информация, необходимая для расходования монет, важна ее безопасность. Обычно рекомендуется шифровать, а также дублировать бумажный кошелек для большей безопасности

  • Устройства хранения, такие как USB-накопитель, также используются для хранения секретных ключей. Такие устройства дополнительно хранятся в сейфовой или депозитной коробке, чтобы убедиться, что они не попадают в чужие руки.
  • Звуковые кошельки — еще один способ защитить виртуальную валюту; технология звукового кошелька включает в себя хранение секретных ключей в зашифрованных звуковых файлах в таких продуктах, как компакт-диски (CD) и виниловые диски. Код, скрытый в этих аудиофайлах, можно расшифровать, используя приложение спектроскопа или спектроскоп высокого разрешения.
  • Аппаратные кошельки становятся предпочтительным выбором для защиты кошелька в автономном режиме. Это небольшие устройства, которые являются доказательством наличия воды и вирусов и даже поддерживают транзакции с несколькими сигналами. Они удобны для отправки и получения виртуальной валюты, имеют резервную копию микрохранилища и камеру сканирования QR-кода. Примерами таких аппаратных устройств являются Pi-Wallet и BitSafe.

В дополнение к этим холодильным хранилищам, концепция глубокого холодильного обслуживания также догоняет. Он был представлен лондонской компанией, которая предложила безопасность банковского хранилища для обеспечения ключей от биткойнов. Эта услуга застрахована андеррайтером, обеспечивая защиту от кражи или потери биткойнов. У этой услуги есть недостаток, поскольку для этого требуется идентификация и адресное подтверждение лица, ищущего услугу. Это, как правило, отговаривает тех, кто хочет быть анонимным владельцем от использования услуги. Служба хранения под эллиптическим хранилищем является примером глубокого холодного хранения.

Bottom Line

Хотя были некоторые новости о возможности хакеров, устанавливающих бэкдор в системе холодного хранения, метод защиты криптовалюты с холодным хранилищем по-прежнему в лучшем случае. Веб-кошельки наиболее подвержены атакам хакеров, и когда веб-ссылки обрезаются, холодное хранилище становится безопасным местом для вашей криптовалюты. (См. Также: см.: Как инвестировать в фьючерсы на бирже биткойнов)

Cold storage in the context of Bitcoin refers to keeping a reserve of Bitcoins offline. This is often a necessary security precaution, especially dealing with large amounts of Bitcoin.

For example, a Bitcoin exchange typically offers an instant withdrawal feature, and might be a steward over hundreds of thousands of Bitcoins. To minimize the possibility that an intruder could steal the entire reserve in a security breach, the operator of the website follows a best practice by keeping the majority of the reserve in cold storage, or in other words, not present on the web server or any other computer. The only amount kept on the server is the amount needed to cover anticipated withdrawals.

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Methods of cold storage include keeping bitcoins:

  • On a USB drive or other data storage medium in a safe place (e.g. safe deposit box, safe)
  • On a paper wallet
  • On a bearer item such as a physical bitcoin.
  • Use a offline Bitcoin Hardware wallet

Potential problems with cold storage methods exist but can be mitigated.

There are a number of cases where secret/private keys and/or backup seeds can be lost because of the medium on which they are stored. The the more common mediums of cold storage are listed with some of their weaknesses.

Written on a piece of paper:

  • Anyone who can see it, can steal it
  • Handwriting can be hard to read or completely illegible
  • Human error in transcription can cause errors on end product
  • Paper can rot, be torn, burn, or be smoke damaged

Printed on a piece of paper:

  • Anyone who can see it, can steal it
  • Type of printer — non-laser printers can run if paper gets wet
  • Have to trust printer — some have internet connections, wifi, and memory
  • Paper can rot, be torn, burn, or be smoke damaged

On laminated paper:

  • Anyone who can see it, can steal it
  • Lamination is prone or degradation over time and puncture or cuts that could allow moisture to get trapped in the paper and cause deterioration or rotting in some circumstances — store in cool dry place
  • Can burn or be smoke damaged
  • ‘Fireproof’ & ‘Fire-resistant’ boxes can help protect paper in a small house fire but be warned that they can sometimes fall apart in the fire and get wet if the fire is put out with water. * Remember people can just carry out a small safe.

Engraved / etched/ ablated/ stamped on a piece of metal:

  • Anyone who can see it, can steal it
  • Some metals can deteriorate or corrode, choose a good metal; also store your metal away from direct contact other metals. Some metals that are corrosion resistant have low melting points, are extremely expensive, or hard to machine.
  • Metals can still deform or melt from heat, destroying any engraved SK. «Most house fires do not burn hotter than 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit. This temperature is typically associated with the hottest portion of a home, which is in the roof area. Homes that burn for longer than 30 minutes or consist of multiple levels sometimes burn at higher temperatures.»
  • You want to pick a metal that won’t be destroyed by a fire. So magnesium, tin, and lead are all out as engraving materials.

Silver, gold, copper, brass, bronze, nickel, cobalt, would survive the housefire fire unmelted. Some Aluminium alloys can survive but you have to have the right ones. At around 1500° Steel and Nickel should be okay. Titanium is above the housefire range and so is tungsten, however tungsten rings are known to shatter due to the brittle nature of the very hard metal.

Stored digitally on a computer:

  • Computers can crash, making data recovery expensive
  • Data can still technically be recovered after a system is abandoned by the user. In some cases data can be recovered after multiple overwriting attempts and physical destruction (as long as the attacker can get all or most the pieces) so if you copy files to a new computer and ditch the old one, be careful.
  • Can burn or be smoke damaged
  • A traditional hard disc drive can have data corrupted by powerful magnetic fields and can physically shatter
  • A non-negligible amount of HDDs suffer from factory defects that will cause them to fail unexpectedly during their lifetime
  • Accidents can happen that could result in loss of data
  • Solid state drives (SSDs) will lose data if unpowered, they may last years before this becomes a problem but it is unwise to store long-term data in unpowered SSDs
  • If connected to internet it is another attack vector and the safety is only as good as the encryption used; I don’t know what I would recommend but it wouldn’t be BitLocker. Someone could be trying to break into the computer constantly. Even with good encryption if the machine or location is compromised the key could be stolen as soon as it is decrypted.
  • There are a lot of ongoing threats with computers, from 0-day exploits to firmware exploits and malicious USB cords
  • External hdds are good for storage for a few years at least if stored properly
  • If not connected to internet, safety is only as good as the physical protection encryption used; could someone break into the location and copy the data without anyone noticing?
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Stored digitally on CD, floppy disk, laserdisc, or mini-disc

  • Plastics break down over time and with exposure to heat, humidity, regular light, all sorts of chemicals, even the oxygen in the air. This can lead to the loss of your data when stored on a medium made of plastic or written/printed on plastic.
  • Can burn or be smoke damaged
  • Can be physically damaged, making data recovery expensive or even impossible
  • Magnetic media (tapes, floppy disc) can be damaged by magnets
  • Data can become difficult to recover if the software and/or hardware to decode is old, don’t use proprietary formats

Stored digitally on a flash drive

  • Can break and have to be physically repaired before use
  • Rapidly changing magnetic fields (See MRIs) can damage the data stored on flash drives
  • Can burn or be smoke damaged
  • Can become corroded from salt water or some atmospheric conditions
  • If they break apart, some lighting conditions can cause data corruption (you can also put them back together and often still get the data)
  • Different devices are all different, even similar devices from the same production batch can be different. There are large quality differences in drives but I am assuming you aren’t using these for anything but storage.
  • There are some fake flash drives that look like they saved the data but you can’t get it back later
  • Flash drives are not advised for long term storage; they can be used as one part of a multi-medium-location-format plan.

A pre-funded physical bitcoin coin (where the manufacturer generates and installs the secret key)

  • The medium that the key is on is often paper/plastic which can burn or be smoke damaged
  • Trust in the manufacturer themselves, they could copy the key
  • Trust in their key generation procedure
  • Trust in the operational security of the manufacturer, they could be generating the keys on their everyday computer
  • Trust no one is successfully spying on them, electronically, looking through their documents while they are out of town, or with tiny tin foil hat cameras or long range ones
  • Trust that the object was not tampered with in delivery
  • Trust that no one has tampered with the object since you got it

—Deep cold storage refers to keeping a reserve of Bitcoins offline, using a method that makes retrieving coins from storage significantly more difficult than sending them there. This could be done for safety’s sake, such as to prevent theft or robbery.

Because Bitcoins can be sent to a wallet by anyone knowing the wallet address, it is trivial to put a wallet in cold storage but to keep a copy of the addresses needed to send funds to it.

A simple example of deep cold storage is opening a safe deposit box and putting a USB stick containing an encrypted wallet file in it. The public (sending) addresses can be used any time to send additional bitcoins to the wallet, but spending the bitcoins would require physical access to the box (in addition to knowledge of the encryption password).

Deep cold storage would typically be used for holding large amounts of bitcoins, or for a trustee holding bitcoins on behalf of others. In such a case, additional precautions should be taken beyond a simple example of a single safe deposit box.

  • The box could be accessed by bank or maintenance personnel, so the contents of the box alone should not be sufficient to access the wallet.
  • The box could be stolen or destroyed in a disaster, or the media could become unreadable, so the box should not contain the only copy of the wallet.
  • The trustee could die or become incapacitated. If access to the wallet or knowledge of its location is lost, or encryption passwords are lost, the bitcoins are gone forever. Provisions should be made so that the box can be accessed by someone else as appropriate, including any encryption passwords.

February 14, 2017

In this guide we will walk you through setting up your very own cold storage wallet. Before diving into the process, you may be wondering what is cold storage?

In simple terms, cold storage refers to keeping your Bitcoin completely offline. Cold storage, also known as a cold storage wallet, is the opposite of a hot wallet where your Bitcoin is kept online. Since Bitcoin is a digital asset, keeping them online increases your risk or attack surface for having your bitcoin stolen when kept online using a custodial service. By keeping your bitcoin in cold storage, your attack surface is greatly diminished.

Getting started

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The first step to getting your Bitcoin into cold storage is creating an offline Bitcoin address. This address will have both a public and private key-pair which never goes online (until you’re ready to spend it). With this guide, we will show you how to make a free cold storage wallet using the paper wallet method.

Setting up a paper wallet

Setting up your cold storage paper wallet is fairly simple and requires very little technical knowledge. The first step will be to go to the Bitcoin.com paper wallet tool here.

Before doing anything else, while on this page you will want to save it locally to your computer. To save a web page to your local machine, press Ctrl-S and save the file as a complete webpage (to your desktop for example). After saving, simply close out the open Bitcoin.com paper wallet tool page. Then disconnect your computer from the internet; don’t worry, you only need it offline temporarily for this task.

After disconnecting from the internet, open the saved file (on your desktop). Move your mouse around on the page and/or type some random characters into the text box to create extra entropy (randomness). By doing this, you create a random Bitcoin address that has both a public and private key-pair. Since you saved the file locally and are not connected to the internet, the Bitcoin address you created was done completely offline.

The final paper wallet page should look similar to this example page

Print the page

The next step is making an offline copy of your Bitcoin address which you can later load with Bitcoin for a complete cold storage solution. While on the locally saved paper wallet page, while still disconnected from the internet, click on the Print button. Warning: before printing the page, make sure your printer is also offline (not connected to the internet through wifi for example). Once you are sure, print the page. Congratulations, the hard part is over! You have now created an offline Bitcoin address and made a hard copy of it locally for safekeeping. On the printed page should be the public Bitcoin address and QR code with the corresponding private key and QR code. We strongly recommend that you store the paper wallet somewhere secure, such as a fireproof safe. You can now safely connect back to the internet.

How does this work?

The Bitcoin.com paper wallet tool is a client-side address generator, which generates public and private Bitcoin key-pairs locally through your browser. The benefit of this technique is you can load the JavaScript locally and trust that the JavaScript did not change after being loaded. The tool is open source and the code can be reviewed at any time. Also, make sure you never share your private key with anyone or online.

Adding funds to your cold storage wallet

The next step is you want to add bitcoin to the wallet. Just like with any other bitcoin transaction, using a wallet you may have online, scan the public cold storage wallet QR code or copy the address, and send funds to your cold storage. You can check the status of the funds at anytime using a Bitcoin block explorer.

Redeeming bitcoin from cold storage

When you are ready to spend from your cold storage wallet, you will need to import the private key to a Bitcoin wallet that is online. Any wallet that supports importing private keys will work. For example, if you download the Bitcoin Unlimited wallet (which is a full Bitcoin client) you can import the private key. To do so, simply follow these steps:

  • Open the client and click on Help
  • Select the Debug Window and click on the Console tab
  • Type in the field “importprivkey ” (replace with your private key and remove quotes)
  • Hit enter to import the private key; this will require a rescan of the blockchain which may take a few minutes to sync

In this screen, you can see the “importprivkey” command in the Console. Type “help” in the Console to get a full list of wallet commands.

Another alternative online web wallet that supports importing private keys is Blockchain.info. To import your private key on this wallet, simply follow these steps:

  • Open the online wallet
  • Click on Settings and then click on Addresses
  • Click on Import Address
  • Copy and paste the cold storage private key and click Import/transfer
  • You can safely archive the old address and transfer the funds to your wallet

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